We are almost on weekends if you do not have many plans to learn how to plant and take care of your own Bonsai. For many, bonsai are beautiful miniature plants that make the home happy. And they are not wrong. Bonsai are true miniature plants, but not all small plants can be called by this name. One must be clear, that bonsai is an art form, in which the growth of foliage and branches of a tree is controlled by a series of techniques, applied with precision and patience by those dedicated to this discipline.
The idea of a bonsai is to achieve a harmonious growth, of a normal tree, in a reduced stature. Bonsai do not measure more than one meter. This is a very important rule, which must be respected, by everyone, who cultivates them. All bonsai must seek harmony, in which it stands out, a progressive growth, in which certain rules must be respected. The base of the bonsai should be wider or thicker than the tip of the trunk. The same must happen with the first branches, concerning those above.
Your planter should be of a harmonious size, concerning the bonsai itself. Not very big, not very small. The fact of irrigation is fundamental. Most of the trees that are used to grow a bonsai are tropical cut. For what they will require, of enough irrigation. Of course in a smaller amount, when it is in winter. The ideal is to see the dryness of the earth. When it denotes dryness, it is time to water. All bonsai must be exposed to the prevailing time. They are more exterior, than the interior. They should only be taken care of, from prolonged exposure to the sun.
Its rules and characteristics depend on the type of base that is used when forming a miniature tree. In this way, bonsai can be obtained from a seed, a cutting, a graft, a layer, a wild plant or one from a nursery. Depending on the selected system, the steps to follow to learn how to make a bonsai will be more or less complicated.
How to make a Misha type bonsai: bonsai with seed
To create a bonsai from seed, you have to start by choosing the species you want to grow and by planting it in a pot. When the plant starts to grow, it begins its formation according to the style you want to achieve. There are certain species that it is more appropriate to propagate through this system to ensure their survival. This is the case of pines, firs or oaks.
Misha is an appropriate technique for the perfectionist, for which you want to learn how to make a bonsai from the beginning, since the plant starts modeling from the beginning, thus avoiding any error. It is essential to know for sure that the seeds that will be used are from the last harvest. Otherwise, they may have lost their ability to germinate.
Before introducing the seed of a conifer in the soil, it is advisable to soak it for 24 hours. Those that remain suspended in the surface of the water, have to be thrown away. Others must be broken or scratched because of their hardness. This is the case of acacia beans, Robin, cytisus or Laburnum. There are also some that require stratification, that is, exposure to low temperatures. Therefore, they should be put in cold water for 12 to 14 hours, they are drained, mixed with sawdust and peat and stored at temperatures between 2 and 7 º for about two months.
Once the seeds have been prepared, the seeds will be sown. Do not forget that the lower layer deposited on the test must be gravel or volcanic earth to avoid errors in drainage. The ideal temperature of germination oscillates between 20 and 25 º. When the plants have grown, they are transplanted to independent pots. After this, they will remain for two years in normal pots. In the third year, it is already possible to plant them in special bonsai containers and begin their training.
How to make a bonsai type Sashiki: bonsai with cutting
This is a technique widely used by amateurs who want to learn how to make a bonsai since most of the future bonsai are easily reproduced. It is advisable to use the stem cuttings to grow azaleas, junipers, maples, tamarinds, camellias, etc.
Stem cuttings are obtained from the remains of the pruning of the mother plant. For their correct development, they need two types of temperatures. A warmer at the base to allow the production of roots and a cooler at the top to limit their growth, not depleting their reserves and avoid water loss.
Five different kinds of cuttings are classified according to their wood and according to the hardness of it. According to their wood, the cuttings can be of softwood and greenwood. The first ones correspond to deciduous species and are the fastest in the generation of roots. On the other hand, there are those made of greenwood, which is trimmed at the beginning and the middle of summer and needs a more controlled environment.
Depending on the hardness of the wood, there are three types. The first of these is semi-hardwood, which is characteristic of slow-growing plants. The second, the mature wood, which is cut in winter. And finally, hardwood, which does not require environmental regulation.
If you want to get a good rooting, you should plant the cutting the same day as your pruning and its length should be 7-12 cm. Also, it is important that 2 or 3 leaves remain in the upper part of the stem. The earth used must be very porous. Rooting hormones will be used and avoid direct or excessive light.
When the cuttings have been planted, they should be watered periodically and sprayed with fungicide every 7 days. After three months, some type of fertilizer can be used. Once they reach a height of 20 cm, they are transplanted into individual pots.
How to make a bonsai type Tsugiki: bonsai with graft
The best stage of the year to carry out this operation in early spring. The two most commonly used mechanisms are the English or tongue graft, and the side graft.
The English graft is suitable for cuttings of small size (from 0.5 to 1.5 cm). The cuts that are made in the pattern must be identical to those of the graft. A cut of 3 to 6 cm is made and another in the opposite direction to allow a graft to fit with another. They unite and wrap with raffia until they have been welded.
In short, there are different ways of learning how to make a bonsai and, although laborious, they are very rewarding for all those who decide to use their time in such an ancestral technique.